Flesh is a mere glaze under which the features are indicated by lines. They show little direct Italian influence. New York: Basic Books, 1975. [1] This print was made from two woodblocks, one key block for black lines and a color block. "[1] Baldung being a humanist, the witches' appearance could be a reference to classical mythology. Unfollow . 333–401, Suzanne Boorsch, Nadine Orenstein "The Print in the North: The Age of Albrecht Durer and Lucas van Leyden. The German artist Hans Baldung began his painting studies with a master in Strasbourg at the age of sixteen. In A Companion to Renaissance and Baroque Art, 402-21. The image also contains references to a blasphemy of mass and the witches' libidinous nature. [3] It was also thought that the witches would perform these sexual acts in front of their children. According to the Malleus maleficarum, loose hair would draw the devil's fascination and distract men during worship. A Companion to Renaissance and Baroque Art. G. von der Osten, Hans Baldung Grien, Gemälde und Dokumente, Berlin 1983, pp. Hans Baldung-Grien 69 Baldung-Grien Otto Brunfels WITCHCRAFT 'The Bewitched Stable Hand' - woodcut by Hans Baldung Grien, circa 1534. hexensabbat . Baldung was born and raised in Schwäbisch Gmünd (Swabian Gmuend), East Wuerttemberg. Recommended . The hag-witch, leaning over the window ledge, appears to have cursed the stable-hand, who lies in a stupor on the floor. H ans Baldung Grien’s placements of the aged witch figure THE HAGS, HAR R IDANS, VIR AGOS AND in the backgrounds of several of his witchcraft tableaux C RO NE S O F HANS BALD UNG GR IEN encourage the viewer’s perception that she be identified as the hidden font of NBMF¾u0001DJVN in these scenes. [1] Most peasants did not know about it, and even among theologians and witch hunters, the Sabbath did not necessarily play a large role in demonology. Another early work is a portrait of the emperor Maximilian, drawn in 1501 on a leaf of a sketch-book now in the print-room at Karlsruhe. [12], Baldung was the first artist to heavily incorporate witches and witchcraft into his artwork (his mentor Albrecht Dürer had sporadically included them but not as prominently as Baldung would). His paintings are less important than his prints. In a later trip to the Netherlands in 1521 Dürer's account book records that he took with him and sold prints by Baldung. Hans Baldung Grien German, 1484/1485 - 1545 Baldung, Hans Biography; Works of Art; Artist Bibliography; Related Content Filter results by: Works on View. The Witches (formerly titled The Witches' Sabbath) is a chiaroscuro woodcut by German Renaissance artist Hans Baldung. Kunst für Alle Art Print/Poster: Hans Baldung-Grien Hexensabbat Picture, Fine Art Poster, 70x100 cm (28x39 inch): Amazon.co.uk: Kitchen & Home [10] On the other hand, through his family, Baldung stood as closer to the leading intellectuals of the day than any of his contemporaries, and could draw on a burgeoning literature on witchcraft, as well as on developing juridical and forensic strategies for witch-hunting. The accused witch also mentioned that the boiled solids can be made into an unguent that assists in pleasure and transportation specifically. During his lifetime there were few witch trials, therefore, some believe Baldung's depictions of witchcraft to be based on folklore rather than the cultural beliefs of his time. Hans Baldung Grien (1484-1545) The Three Fates: Lachesis, Atropos and Clotho (Bartsch 44; Hollstein 236) woodcut, 1513, on laid paper, a rather dry, later impression, trimmed on or just inside the borderline, a pale stain at lower right, two horizontal printer's creases, generally in good condition; with The Last Judgement (Holl. In addition to traditional religious subjects, Baldung was concerned during these years with the profane theme of the imminence of death and with scenes of sorcery and witchcraft. [3] The husband could testify that he had spent the entire night in bed at his wife's side, but witches' flight made it possible for the supposed witch to leave while the husband shut his eyes, fly away to attend the sabbath, and then come back before the husband awoke. Starcky Emmanuel, in Dessins de Dürer et de la Renaissance germanique dans les collections publiques parisiennes, LXXXXVIIIe exposition du Cabinet des dessins, cat. The number of Hans Baldung's religious works diminished with the Protestant Reformation, which generally repudiated church art as either wasteful or idolatrous. Most of his hundreds of woodcuts were commissioned for books, as was usual at the time; his "single-leaf" woodcuts (i.e. "The Nude Figure in Renaissance Art." His patches of wispy hair and rotting skin mock her flowing tresses and supple flesh. ", This page was last edited on 21 November 2020, at 20:43. Throughout his lifetime, he developed a distinctive style, full of colour, expression and imagination. Witches' flight was later used in witch trials, specifically to discredit the husband's testimony. Sep 30, 2013 - Urs Graf, Kopie nach Hans Baldung Grien - Hexensabbat [1514] Albertina scan This is the first print made by Baldung after becoming a master craftsman and leaving Dürer's workshop, as well as the first to feature his initials. Overview / In-depth. "Art, Culture, and Mentality in Renaissance Society: The Meaning of Hans Baldung Grien's Bewitched Groom (1544)." At the age of 26, he married Margaretha Härlerin (née Herlin), with whom he had one child: Margarethe Baldungin. He is partially covered by a burial shroud, but the spear wound on his side is visible. At a later period he had sittings with Margrave Christopher of Baden, Ottilia his wife, and all their children, and the picture containing these portraits is still in the gallery at Karlsruhe. Hans Baldung (1484 or 1485 – September 1545), called Hans Baldung Grien,[a] (being an early nickname, because of his predilection for the colour green), was an artist in painting and printmaking, engraver, draftsman, and stained glass artist, who was considered the most gifted student of Albrecht Dürer, whose art belongs to both German Renaissance and Mannerism. This is the first woodcut produced by Baldung after leaving the studio of his mentor, Albrecht Dürer, and one of the first Renaissance images to depict both witches that fly and a Witches' Sabbath. Like Dürer and Cranach, Baldung supported the Protestant Reformation. He trained in Strasbourg and completed his studies in Dürer’s workshop where he is documented around 1503. [3] The flying witch's backward posture on indicates she is not in control of the goat, or where he is going. He probably also got this nickname to distinguish him from at least two other Hanses in Dürer's shop, Hans Schäufelein and Hans Suess von Kulmbach. Follow. Bohn, Babette, and Saslow, James M., eds. [3] The witch in the middle also holds a dirty cloth above her head, referencing both the corporal and altar cloth a priest would use to display the monstrance. [4], At the time of the image's creation in 1510, the Sabbath was largely considered a fictional idea and not widely considered to be a legitimate threat. depictions of contemporary or ancient scenes, Discover this artwork in our collection. The chiaroscuro woodcut was a printmaking technique where a color woodblock was used to add tone to the printed image. [3], The witches in this image are designed to mock the Christian Mass and the Eurcharist. [4] His earliest training as an artist began around 1500 in the Upper Rhineland by an artist from Strasbourg. See more ideas about art, renaissance, painting. Europe's Inner Demons: An Enquiry Inspired by the Great Witch-hunt. Cohn, Norman. Hans Baldung Grien", "The Witches of Dürer and Hans Baldung Grien", "Verzeichniss der Gemälde des Hans Baldung Gen. Grien Zusammengestellt", "Neues Jahrbuch - Heraldisch-Genealogische Gesellschaft "Adler, Prints & People: A Social History of Printed Pictures, Article: Sacred and Profane: Christian Imagery and Witchcraft in Prints by Hans Baldung Grien, by Stan Parchin, Hans Baldung in the "A World History of Art", Several of Baldung's witches and erotic prints, Art in the Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hans_Baldung&oldid=996601857, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from EB9, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with KULTURNAV identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TePapa identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [1] This new technology allowed for Baldung's scene to be set at night. ‘Hexensabbat.’ 1510. the-two-germanys . Near the end of his Nuremberg years, Grien oversaw the production by Dürer of stained glass, woodcuts and engravings, and therefore developed an affinity for these media and for the Nuremberg master's handing of them. ProQuest Ebook Central. Hans Baldung, also called Baldung-Grien, (born c. 1484, Schwäbisch Gmünd, Württemberg [Germany]—died 1545, Imperial Free City of Strasbourg [now Strasbourg, France]), painter and graphic artist, one of the most outstanding figures in northern Renaissance art. no. Hans Baldung (1484 or 1485 – September 1545), called Hans Baldung Grien, (being an early nickname, because of his predilection for the colour green), was an artist in painting and printmaking, engraver, draftsman, and stained glass artist, who was considered the most gifted student of Albrecht Dürer, whose art belongs to both German Renaissance and Mannerism. Rather than receive the body and blood of Christ, participants instead offered up human flesh to Satan. [1] It's plausible that Baldung was inspired to create this by the publication of Lucan's De Bello Civili in Strasbourg the year before, which features the witch Erichtho. Hans Baldung was the son of Johann Baldung, an university-educated jurist, having since 1492 the office of legal adviser to the bishop of Strasbourg (Albert of Bavaria), and Margarethe Herlin, daughter of Arbogast Herlin, he was not propertyless, but with unknown occupation,[2] and his family living in this city, Hans made his apprenticeship there, with an artist remained unknown. He became a celebrity of the town, and received many important commissions. [3] The children would also be given to the devil, presumably as a sacrifice. [3], Church inquisitors recognized the goat as a form the devil may take, so it's possible that the goat in this image may be the devil in animal form. Hans Baldung, called Grien Biography Hans Baldung, born in 1484/85 in Gmünd (Schwabia), German painter and engraver, the most gifted of Dürer’s pupils, worked in Nürnberg in 1503-07. [3] His uncle, Hieronymus Baldung, was a doctor in medicine, he had a son, Pius Hieronymus, that can be seen as Hans' cousin, who taught law at Freiburg, and became by 1527 chancellor of the Tyrol. Nov 11, 2018 - Explore Rick Prol's board "Hans Baldung Grien", followed by 337 people on Pinterest. Hans Baldung Grien The Virgin Mary and Saint John the Evangelist stand in Christ’s red marble tomb supporting his lifeless body. Gert von der Osten comments on this aspect of "Baldung [treating] his witches humorously, an attitude that reflects the dominant viewpoint of the humanists in Strasbourg at this time who viewed witchcraft as 'lustig,' a matter that was more amusing than serious". This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 16:11. Hans Baldung, called Grien, was most probably born in Schwäbisch Gmünd in southwestern Germany, the site of the family home. Accessed November 15, 2020. [4] The Malleus maleficarum provided biblical evidence for flight as a power of Satan, citing Matthew 4:8 where Satan lifts Jesus onto a mountain top to tempt him into submitting to the devil. In 1509, when Baldung's time in Nuremberg was complete, he moved back to Strasbourg and became a citizen there. Hans Baldung Grien's work depicting witches was produced in the first half of the 16th century, before witch hunting became a widespread cultural phenomenon in Europe. The devil, in the form of an animal or a human, would copulate with all of the witches at the Sabbath. [3] In a Catholic Mass, this chalice would be filled with sacramental wine which was then transformed into the Blood of Christ. Here, he may have been given his nickname "Grien". He helped introduce supernatural and erotic themes into German art, although these were already amply present in Dürer's work. Columbus Centre Series. Flying was inherently attributed to witches by those who believed in the myth of the Sabbath (without their ability to fly, the myth fragmented), such as Baldung, which he depicted in works like "Witches Preparing for the Sabbath Flight" (1514). eccentric paintings. 3 (1985): 488-510. Hans Baldung Grien. [3] The cat is on the right by the base of the tree, and has its back turned to the viewer. [3] The devil, as a fallen angel, would still have the ability to fly. Nurse, Julia. 581 II), Saint Martin on Horseback (Holl. The drawing is in private hands and is not in Koch, Zeichnungen. There is special force in the "Death and the Maiden" panel of 1517 (Basel), in the "Weather Witches" (Frankfurt), in the monumental panels of "Adam" and "Eve" (Madrid), and in his many powerful portraits. [3], However, Jane Schuyler believes the multiple goats and a cat suggest that the goat is not a devil, but instead that these are animal familiars. [1] Although the Sabbath was first mentioned in the Malleus maleficarum and would later become an essential component of many witch trials, in Strasbourg at this time the legitimacy of the Sabbath's existence was in dispute.[1]. The most important evidence for deducing his date of birth (between 1484 and 1485) is a self-portrait drawing at age 49 which is preparatory to a 1534 woodcut. Beginning in 1503, during the "Wanderjahre" ("Hiking years") required of artists of the time, Baldung became an assistant to Albrecht Dürer. Dates: 1484/1485 - 1545: Roles: Artist: Nationality: German: Surrounded by physicians, lawyers, and scholars, Hans Baldung Grien was one of the first German artists from a learned family. 2, 2000, pp. His exact date of birth is unknown. Baldung's fascination with witchcraft began early, with his first chiaroscuro print (1510) lasted to the end of his career. Hoak, Dale. Explore museums and play with Art Transfer, Pocket Galleries, Art Selfie, and more. Witch hunters needed a way to circumvent the Cannon Episcopi and popularize the idea of witches' flight as feasible in order to better prosecute and convict people of being witches. Since 1509 till the end of his life he lived in Strasbourg, save for 1512-1516, when he painted the grandiose altar for the local cathedral in Freiburg. Baldung never worked directly with any Reformation leaders to spread religious ideals through his artwork, although living in fervently religious Strasbourg,[11] although he was a supporter of the movement, working on the high altar in the city of Münster, Germany. [3] Afterwards the infant's bodies are dug up so that they can be boiled in a cauldron. But earlier, around the same time that he produced an important chiaroscuro woodcut of Adam and Eve, the artist became interested in themes related to death, the supernatural, witchcraft, sorcery, and the relation between the sexes. [1] Baldung and Dürer were both involved in humanist circles in Strasbourg, and humanists mostly considered witchcraft as "'lustig,' a matter that was more amusing than serious. [3], It is important to note that the witches in Baldung's image are not actually at a Sabbath. [16], His works are notable for their individualistic departure from the Renaissance composure of his model, Dürer, for the wild and fantastic strength that some of them display, and for their remarkable themes. Baldung's most sustained effort is the altarpiece of Freiburg, where the Coronation of the Virgin, and the Twelve Apostles, the Annunciation, Visitation, Nativity and Flight into Egypt, and the Crucifixion, with portraits of donors, are executed with some of that fanciful power that Martin Schongauer bequeathed to the Swabian school. [13], Throughout his life, Baldung painted numerous portraits, known for their sharp characterizations. In this image by Baldung, the witches are using an unguent contained in a jar that will be used for flight. His talents were varied, and he produced a great and extensive variety of work including portraits, woodcuts, drawings, tapestries, altarpieces, stained glass, allegories and mythological motifs. and powerful woodcuts. Paulus met zwaard From same collection. This print was created in the city of Strasbourg, where Hans Baldung was working. Woodcut from Hans Curjel, Hans Baldung Grien, … The pot containing a flying potion and uneaten food also suggest they are carrying food to a larger gathering. Söding Ulrich, "Hans Baldung Grien in Freiburg : Themenwahl und Stilentwicklung", in Hans Baldung Grien in Freiburg, cat. Although originally considered an impossibility, witches' flight was essential to making the Witches' Sabbath and the subsequent witch hunts possible. Art historian Jane Schyler asserts that The Witches illustrates the beliefs of church inquisitors, and that its imagery is directly informed by the writings of the Malleus maleficarum. [4] Witches' flight was also dismissed as fantasy by Alphonso de Spina in Fortalicium Fidei, Gianfrancesco Ponzinibio in Tractatus de Lamiis, Jean Bodin in De la demonomanie de les sorciers, and in the speeches of preacher Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg.[4]. Baldung settled eventually in Strasbourg and then to Freiburg im Breisgau, where he executed what is held to be his masterpiece. There is a bishop's hat on the ground, suggesting that it may belong to the obscured figure. There is a lack of feasting and dancing as a group, essential elements of a Sabbath. His talents were varied, and he produced a g… The skeletal figure gently holds her head, a gesture that belies the finality of his impending bite. Fribourg-en-Brisgau, Augustinermuseum, 2000-2001, p. 41. He later included the name "Grien" in his monogram, and it has also been suggested that the name came from, or consciously echoed, "grienhals", a German word for witch—one of his signature themes. The overall dimensions, framed, are 42 x 49 cm, the dimensions of the panel are 26 x 33 cm. These depictions were a large part of the artist's greater body of work containing several renowned pieces of the Virgin. Creator: Hans Baldung Grien; Date Created: 1510/1510; Physical Dimensions: h 378mm - w 257mm; External Link: See more details about this work on the Rijksmuseum Website; Medium: paper; Get the app. Home » Collection » Baldung Grien, Hans. [14] Here in painted an eleven-panel altarpiece for the Freiburg Cathedral, still intact today, depicting scenes from the life of the Virgin, including, The Annunciation, The Visitation, The Nativity, The Flight into Egypt, The Crucifixion, Four Saints and The Donators. The Malleus maleficarum specifies that in women this carnal lust is "insatiable. It was probably executed for Hans Bock von Gerstheim (d. Oct. 12, 1542), who, to my knowledge, was the only Bock named “Johann” during this period. [3] Long hair could also hide witch's marks or charms, to this end inquisitors would often order that a suspected witch's body be shaved of all hair preceding a trial. By contrast, throughout the early sixteenth century, humanism became very popular, and within this movement, Latin literature was valorized, particularly poetry and satire, some of which included views on witches that could be combined with witch lore massively accumulated in works such as the Malleus Maleficarum. It has been pointed out that Hans Baldung was the only male member of his family not to receive a … This woodcut depicts witches preparing to travel to a Witches' Sabbath by using flying ointment. Most famously, he depicted witches, also a local interest: Strasbourg's humanists studied witchcraft and its bishop was charged with finding and prosecuting witches. Hans Baldung Grien (1484/85-11545) and his Circle Hans Baldung Grien received his education with Albrecht Dürer in Nuremberg, where he gained his surname Grien, meaning „The Green" (presumably because he mainly wore green). The Virgin mourns her son, wiping her eyes with her veil. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2013. His oeuvre, which includes many mythological scenes, betrays the influence of the Italian Renaissance. Hans Baldung Grien: Kämpfende Hengste inmitten einer Gruppe von Wildpferden, 1534 . [3] In it, the supposed witch confesses that witches kill infants in a way that suggests overlaying or natural causes. [3] Baldung, who had an attorney for a father and a professor for a brother, likely had access to the Malleaus maleficarum through his family members. "[3], The Malleus maleficarum also connects the lust of these witches to Eve, saying that Eve seduced Adam in the creation of original sin. He joined in the fashion for chiaroscuro woodcuts, adding a tone block to a woodcut of 1510. [15], The earliest pictures assigned to him by some are altar-pieces with the monogram H. B. interlaced, and the date of 1496, in the monastery chapel of Lichtenthal near Baden-Baden. Stop. [10] However, the separation of a satirical tone from deadly serious vilifying intent proves difficult to maintain for Baldung as it is for many other artists, including his rough contemporary Hieronymus Bosch. Catalogue Note. [16], He is well known as a portrait painter, his works include historical pictures and portraits; among the latter may be named those of Maximilian I. and Charles V.[14] His bust of Margrave Philip in the Munich Gallery tells us that he was connected with the reigning family of Baden as early as 1514. Hans quickly picked up Dürer's influence and style, and they became friends: Baldung seems to have managed Dürer's workshop during the latter's second sojourn in Venice. [3] If true, then this bishop would be the only male in this image, excluding the animals. Highly expressive paintings, Discover this artwork in our collection. Hans Baldung Grien: Artist dates: 1484/5 - 1545: Date made: 1512: Medium and support: Oil on oak: Dimensions: 112.3 x 89.1 cm: Inscription summary: Signed; Dated: Acquisition credit: Bought, 1894: Inventory number: NG1427: Location: Room 2: Art route(s) C: Collection: Main Collection: The Trinity and Mystic Pietà . He first studied in Strasbourg or Swabia around 1499. Baldung's art simultaneously represents ideals presented in ancient Greek and Roman poetry, such as the pre-16th century notion that witches could control the weather, which Baldung is believed to have alluded to in his 1523 oil painting "Weather Witches", which showcases two attractive and naked witches in front of a stormy sky.